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WORKING WITH VECTOR DATA 131 6.1 Digitizing vector data 131 6.1.1 General principles for digitizing topological data 132 6.1.2 Digitizing in GRASS 133 6.2 Metadata and attributes management 139 6.2.1 Managing metadata of vector maps 140 6.2.2 Map attributes modifications 140 6.3 Viewing and analysis 141 6.3.1 Displaying vector map layers 141 6.3.2 Intersecting and clipping vector maps 142 6.3.3 Map reclassification 144 6.3.4 Eeature extraction from vector data 145 6.4 Vector data transformations to/from raster and sites 145 6.4.1 Automatic vectorization of raster data 146 6.4.2 Direct transformation of vector data to raster or sites 147 6.4.3 Interpolating raster surfaces from contour lines 147 7.
WORKING WITH RASTER DATA 85 5.1 Viewing and managing raster map layers 85 5.1.1 Displaying raster data and assigning a color table 85 5.1.2 Raster map queries and profiles 87 5.1.3 Zooming and generating subsets from raster maps 88 5.1.4 Managing metadata of raster maps 90 5.1.5 Reclassification of raster maps 91 5.1.6 Assigning category labels 93 5.1.7 Masking and handling of no-data values 97 5.2 Raster map algebra 99 5.3 Raster data transformation and interpolation 105 5.3.1 Automated vectorization of discrete raster data 105 5.3.2 Generating isolines representing continuous fields 107 5.3.3 Raster data transformation to sites 108 5.3.4 Interpolation of raster data and resampling 108 5.3.5 Recoding of raster map types and value replacements 110 5.4 Spatial analysis with raster data 111 5.4.1 Map statistics and neighborhood analysis 111 5.4.2 Overlaying and merging raster maps 115 Contents IX 5.4.3 Buffering of raster features 118 5.4.4 Cost surfaces 120 5.4.5 DEM and watershed analysis 123 5.4.6 Landscape structure analysis and modeling 129 6.
Managers wanted to see results before they spent their limited funds on new technologies. Other priorities were added through legis- lation - such as protecting endangered species and habitats, protecting cultural sites, and limiting the on and off-post impacts of noise, ordnance, contaminants and sediments.
Military land managers were unable to cope with the challenge of examining proposed new actions (such as new weapon firing ranges or new vehicle train- ing routes) without improved methods to gather, integrate and visualize their data and to examine alternative courses of action.
Tasks requiring days and months with paper and acetate overlays could be accomplished with this newly emerging geographic information technology within minutes. These installa- tions include millions of acres of lands needed for military training and testing.
But even in the mid-1980s, GIS technology involved signifi- cant capital investment. Army Construction Engineering Research Eaboratory (CERE) in Champaign, Illinois has the mission of developing and infusing new technolo- gies for managing U. Other uses included wildlife management, hunting and fishing and forestry, grazing and agricultural production.